Pelech was established in 1966 by Rabbi Shalom and Pnina Rosenblith, with the aim of providing religiously-observant girls with an education that was at the time nowhere available – one that would combine in-depth Jewish Studies (including Talmud) with a wide-ranging general education in the humanities and science.
Upon the retirement of its founders in 1975, Alice Shalvi, a professor of English at the Hebrew University who had two daughters at the school, volunteered to take on the post of principal. Shalvi, the founder of the Women’s Lobby, and later a recipient of the Israel Prize remained in this position until 1990. Under the leadership of Prof. Alice Shalvi, the school continued to develop unique educational programs and ongoing series of innovations in both content and teaching methods which in 1997 led the Ministry of Education to accredit Pelech as one of a handful of schools country-wide officially designated as experimental.
Shira Breuer, one of the first graduates of the Kerem Institute for Jewish Humanistic Education and holds a Masters in history from the Hebrew University continued leading the school for over 25 years. During this time Pelech was established as a leading religious high school for girls. During this time, in 2011 Pelech opened a Junior High School and added grades 7 and 8. Rachel Tzur became principal. A Pelech graduate herself who returned as a teacher, educator and vice principal, Rachel Tzur founded the Pelech junior high. Rachel holds a BA and MA in education and art history from the Hebrew University. As of 2020, Yaara Kaufman heads the Junior High. Yaara is also a Pelech graduate and has been an educator and part of the administration for over ten years prior to becoming principal.
In 2015, Sophie Pfeffer, a Pelech graduate and staff member for many years, took over as Principal. Sophie holds degrees in bible studies and art history from the Hebrew University and was a fellow at the Mandel Leadership Institute and a graduate of the Avney Rosha training program for principals. She has taught at Midreshet Lindenbaum and Matan as well as many years at Pelech.

As of 2023, Efrat Koslowsky became the principal of the high school and together with Yaara and Sophie who remained the head of the school, they lead with a dedicated and professional team of teachers, many of which are alumni themselvesThey continue to promote Pelech’s educational vision of over 50 years.

Pelech is a semi-private school, partially supported by the Ministry of Education. Approximately 500 students learn in 7th to 12th grade. The school is located in the Baka neighborhood of Jerusalem.